The annulimana species group contains a total of 15 described species, all of which are Neotropical in distribution (Baechli, 2005; Wheeler, 1982, 1986). Throckmorton (1975) considered this group to be a member of the basal virilis-repleta radiation. Tatarenkov and Ayala (2001) also placed this group in a basal position as the sister taxon of the repleta, mesophragmatica, dreyfusi, canalinea, bromeliae, and nannoptera species groups. A phylogeny of this group, based on the study by Tosi and Pereira (1993), suggest that the annulimana species group is divided into three main subgroups: (1) schineri– ararama– pseudotalamanca–gibberosa; (2) arapuan–arassari; and (3) annulimana- aragua–aracataca–arauna.
(excerpted from Markow and O’Grady, 2006, Chapter 1)
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